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American business launched a campaign against sanctions against Russia
On Thursday in the leading American Newspapers, including The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal and the Washington Post, on the advertisement was published the statement of the two major American business associations against the expansion of the US administration sanctions against Russia, entitled "America's Interests at stake in Russia and in Ukraine."

In his statement, the American chamber of Commerce (AMCHAM) and the national Association of manufacturers (NAP) indicate the loss, which, in their opinion, will cause American business new sanctions against Russia. The statement in particular says that the only result of the sanctions would be "deprivation of American companies access to foreign markets and the transfer of business opportunities to companies from other countries".

Joint address was signed by the heads of two leading business lobby of America Thomas Donohue (ATP) and Jay Timmons (EmOC). The text does not mention directly the President Barack Obama, however, leaves no doubt who is the addressee of the message.

"In conditions of global escalation of tension, some American politicians consider the application of sanctions, which, as history shows, damage the interests of America. We are concerned about the actions that can hit the American manufacturers and cost the American jobs", - warns Timmons.

'donoghue draws Parallels between the current threat of sanctions unpopular with grain embargo, which President Jimmy Carter entered against the Soviet Union after its invasion of Afghanistan, and which later overturned President Ronald Reagan.

"History shows that unilateral sanctions do not work, - reminded'donoghue. - President Reagan acknowledged this reality three decades ago, when canceled inefficient grain embargo against the Soviet Union".

"American businesses and their employees pay for unilateral economic sanctions, which give little hope of improving the ability of the U.S. to achieve its foreign policy goals," conclude the authors of the appeal.

The correspondent of "voice of America" could not get information on what the Corporation has initiated a public campaign against new sanctions against Russia. However, we know that the U.S. chamber of Commerce is the largest in the country (and, according to the organization, the world Association of business circles, representing more than 3 million companies and firms - from family-run shops to large corporations". 'donoghue is headed by the ATU in 1997; he had visited Russia many times.

NAP includes 11 thousand producers, including Caterpillar, ExxonMobil, Pfizer, General Electric, Intel, Alcoa, Harley-Davidson, Boeing. Last year this organization spent on lobbying their interests of its members in Washington for more than seven and a half million dollars.

Many us companies are lobbying their interests themselves, spending a lot of money. According to Congress, published according to the law on disclosure of lobbying expenses only in March of the current year on the subject of sanctions against Russia with the authorities contacted the Corporation ExxonMobil, Coca-Cola, Xerox, agribusiness company Cargill, a manufacturer of road-construction equipment of Caterpillar and others.

While the trade turnover between the USA and Russia in 2013 amounted to only us $ 38 billion, while U.S. exports to Russia - 11 billion. The trade turnover of Russia with the European Union - on the order above.

The white house is looking for a "balance of interests"

Commenting on the appeal of representatives of business circles, who spoke against the sanctions, the state Department spokesman Marie Harf refused to answer the question, will this demarche to the position of the Obama administration. It limited itself to saying that the sanctions are intended to put pressure on Russia with the least harm to American companies.

This Harf said that the administration is in dialogue with business. "We are talking in General about what might be the consequences for the American economy, how to minimize the negative effect. But we have not discussed with anyone outside of government specific sanctions that may be imposed", - she said.

The press-Secretary of the national security Council of the United States Laura Lucas Magnusson said that the U.S. administration officials regularly hold talks with the leaders of business community from the beginning of the crisis in Ukraine is to understand the concerns of entrepreneurs.

According to the press-Secretary of the White house Josh Ernest, the Obama administration will take into account the interests of American business that supports business relations with Russian partners. "If you need additional sanctions (against Russia), we unhesitatingly use them", - he said. However, he added that the administration is trying "to such actions did not put U.S. companies at a disadvantage". "We have to balance the interests while solving many important problems," said White house press Secretary.
On the eve of the state Department spokesman said that the Obama administration has already prepared additional sanctions against Russia that can be quickly implemented. "Additional sanctions we have, they are ready to use, " said Harf. "We continue negotiations with Europe, and if we will be ready at some point, we will do it."

She added that Washington considers the positive decision of the Council of Federation to revoke the authorization for the use of the armed forces of the Russian Federation in Ukraine, but waiting for more action from the Kremlin. Media reported that the Obama administration is developing a so-called "third package of sanctions against Russia, which may affect the financial sector and energy companies.

According to The New York Times, citing anonymous U.S. officials, the Obama administration has developed three options for further action: the prohibition of any interactions with some of the largest Russian banks; cessation of technology transfer to Russian companies in the sectors of energy and defense; cessation of business relations with Russian defense companies. According to the newspaper, this is not the most powerful of possible sanctions. The us administration is "looking for steps that will have a significant impact, but will not affect the global markets."

The balance of forces in the European Union

German Chancellor Angela Merkel also said that sanctions intended to strike on the Russian economy with its dokhtarironi in dollar terms of GDP, included in the agenda of a meeting of EU leaders, held on 26-27 June.
Yet sent conflicting signals about how likely the decision to toughen sanctions against Russia. On the eve of the sources Associated Press reported that the West will not hurry with new sanctions, waiting for "positive signals" from the Kremlin.

According to the newspaper Financial Times on the eve of Brussels, where the EU summit, was visited by a delegation of the US state Department. American officials told the European colleagues that are willing to wait for new sanctions against Russia and beyond "will make less in coordination with Europe, the more, but alone". According to British newspaper, the assistant Secretary of state Dan fried said that the introduction of the third package of sanctions at the moment is justified, but Washington does not want this issue ahead of Brussels.
If after the summit on Friday, EU leaders will agree to impose new sanctions, the US hopes to agree on a package that is ready for use, unless Putin will strengthen its recent positive statements or returns to a more hostile actions after the end of the summit," the New York Times journalist Peter Baker.

According to the American media, the Obama administration is believed that peaceful rhetoric of the President of Russia Vladimir Putin is only a trick, the aim of which is to undermine support for the sanctions.

As writes Agency Bloomberg, "serious fluctuations" on sanctions against Russia in Europe is explained not only by its dependence on energy supplies, but also the fact that the UK is concerned about the issue of providing financial services to Russian oligarchs, "France - supplying military equipment, Italy - sales of luxury items, and Germany is the General condition of trade with Russia".

At the same time, as reported in Thursday's Financial Times, in the last days of Germany has toughened its position on sanctions, and a leading opponent of the introduction of new sanctions against Russia at the EU summit was Italy. Rome offers to focus on supporting the efforts of the President of Ukraine Peter Poroshenko to achieve peaceful settlement of the conflict in the East of the country and its negotiations with Gazprom. According to the newspaper, this approach is also supported by Austria, Spain, Cyprus, Greece, Slovakia, Hungary and Bulgaria.
For more hard-line approach and the introduction of new sanctions or at least the threat, according to the Financial Times, at the summit in Germany stand United Kingdom, Sweden, Denmark, Poland, Romania and the Baltic States.

Fear of American business

Business representatives in the U.S. and had previously opposed Vvedenie economic sanctions against Russia, but before the publication of statements by the ATU and NAB the objections of business circles not been voiced publicly.

In an interview with the Russian service of Voice of America is one of the leaders of Houston PacWest Consulting Partners Alexander Robert advising American energy company, stated that they are actively lobbying in Washington against the introduction of anti-Russian sanctions.

"I would be shocked if it were not so, - the expert said. They have invested billions of dollars to various projects in Russia, and they don't want these projects to lose".

In an interview with Bloomberg, the representative of the ATP said on condition of anonymity that U.S. companies fear that "even temporary and targeted sanctions will cause lasting damage to their export markets in Russia, will spoil relations with Russian customers and will raise the cost of future funding as banks around the world are reviewing the political risks associated with the export to this country".

This representative of the business lobby said that sanctions against a small group of major Russian banks, hurt export markets for American companies, slowing down the pace of development of the Russian economy and increasing prices for American goods in connection with the depreciation of the Russian ruble. Possible restrictions on technology transfer will complicate the exports of equipment, necessary for the development of modern methods of oil and gas and, in particular, will affect the American energy companies operating in Russia.

Business decided to act publicly

According to bill O'rourke, from 2005 to 2008 headed the Russian branch of Alcoa ("the Aluminum company of America), published in Thursday's statement by the ATU and the NAP reflects the opinion of the American business community in General.

"The Obama administration previously asked the leaders of the major American corporations to refrain from participation in the economic forum in St. Petersburg, - reminded O'rourke, and they reluctantly agreed: they did not go themselves, but sent their representatives. However, they continued privately to convince the White house inexpediency of further sanctions. What is now the campaign became public, suggests that expressed in the margins of appeals of the business community were not heard."

O'rourke, during which the President of Alcoa Russia" American aluminum company has invested in its acquired Oleg Deripaska Samara metallurgical plant and Belokalitvinskoe metallurgical production Association about 500 million dollars to bring these "dinosaurs" of the Soviet metallurgy in accordance with international standards, now heads the Institute of the name of Beard School of business University Duquesne in Pittsburgh (The Beard Institute, School of Business at Duquesne University). In a telephone interview to the Russian service of Voice of America" O'rourke called talk of a new, tougher sanctions against Russia "untimely," given that the situation in Ukraine has been glimmers of hope for a peaceful settlement.

"I don't know whether sanctions in resolving the situation or will harm," said O'rourke.

He also noted that the majority of EU countries are tougher sanctions without enthusiasm, and complained about the absence in the world "enlightened leaders"whose priorities reflect the aspirations of ordinary people.
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